Botswana Country Profile

By | May 7, 2020

Botswana Country Profile


CIA Botswana

  • Introduction:: BOTSWANA
  • Background:
  • Botswana Flag

    Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than five decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every national election since independence; President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI assumed the presidency in April 2018 following the retirement of former President Ian KHAMA due to constitutional term limits. MASISI won his first election as president in October 2019, and he is Botswana’s fifth president since independence. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country’s conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world’s highest rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa’s most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.
  • Geography:: BOTSWANA
  • Location:
    Southern Africa, north of South Africa
    Geographic coordinates:
    22 00 S, 24 00 E
    Map references:
    total: 581,730 sq km
    land: 566,730 sq km
    water: 15,000 sq km
    country comparison to the world: 49
    Area – comparative:
    slightly smaller than Texas; almost four times the size of Illinois
    Area comparison map:
    Land boundaries:
    total: 4,347.15 km
    border countries (4): Namibia 1544 km, South Africa 1969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
    0 km (landlocked)
    Maritime claims:
    none (landlocked)
    semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
    predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; the Kalahari Desert in southwest
    mean elevation: 1,013 m
    lowest point: junction of the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers 513 m
    highest point: Tsodilo Hills 1,489 m
    Natural resources:
    diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
    Land use:
    agricultural land: 45.8% (2011 est.)
    arable land: 0.6% (2011 est.) / permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) / permanent pasture: 45.2% (2011 est.)
    forest: 19.8% (2011 est.)
    other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
    Irrigated land:
    20 sq km (2012)
    Population distribution:
    the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the capital of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west
    Natural hazards:
    periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
    Environment – current issues:
    overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources; air pollution
    Environment – international agreements:
    party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
    signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
    Geography – note:
    landlocked; population concentrated in the southern and eastern parts of the country
  • People and Society:: BOTSWANA
  • Population:
    2,317,233 (July 2020 est.)

    note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of the population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected

    country comparison to the world: 144
    noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
    adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
    Ethnic groups:
    Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and people of European ancestry 7%
    Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
    Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha’i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
    Demographic profile:

    Botswana has experienced one of the most rapid declines in fertility in Sub-Saharan Africa. The total fertility rate has fallen from more than 5 children per woman in the mid-1980s to approximately 2.4 in 2013. The fertility reduction has been attributed to a host of factors, including higher educational attainment among women, greater participation of women in the workforce, increased contraceptive use, later first births, and a strong national family planning program. Botswana was making significant progress in several health indicators, including life expectancy and infant and child mortality rates, until being devastated by the HIV/AIDs epidemic in the 1990s.

    Today Botswana has the third-highest HIV/AIDS prevalence rate in the world at approximately 22%, however comprehensive and effective treatment programs have reduced HIV/AIDS-related deaths. The combination of declining fertility and increasing mortality rates because of HIV/AIDS is slowing the population ageing process, with a narrowing of the youngest age groups and little expansion of the oldest age groups. Nevertheless, having the bulk of its population (about 60%) of working age will only yield economic benefits if the labour force is healthy, educated, and productively employed.

    Batswana have been working as contract miners in South Africa since the 19th century. Although Botswana’s economy improved shortly after independence in 1966 with the discovery of diamonds and other minerals, its lingering high poverty rate and lack of job opportunities continued to push workers to seek mining work in southern African countries. In the early 1970s, about a third of Botswana’s male labour force worked in South Africa (lesser numbers went to Namibia and Zimbabwe). Not until the 1980s and 1990s, when South African mining companies had reduced their recruitment of foreign workers and Botswana’s economic prospects had improved, were Batswana increasingly able to find job opportunities at home.

    Most Batswana prefer life in their home country and choose cross-border migration temporarily only for work, shopping, visiting family, or tourism. Since the 1970s, Botswana has pursued an open migration policy enabling it to recruit thousands of foreign workers to fill skilled labour shortages. In the late 1990s, Botswana’s prosperity and political stability attracted not only skilled workers but small numbers of refugees from neighbouring Angola, Namibia, and Zimbabwe.

    Age structure:
    0-14 years: 30.54% (male 357,065/female 350,550)
    15-24 years: 18.31% (male 208,824/female 215,462)
    25-54 years: 39.67% (male 434,258/female 484,922)
    55-64 years: 5.92% (male 59,399/female 77,886)
    65 years and over: 5.56% (male 53,708/female 75,159) (2020 est.)
    population pyramid:
    Dependency ratios:
    total dependency ratio: 61.1
    youth dependency ratio: 53.8
    elderly dependency ratio: 7.3
    potential support ratio: 13.8 (2020 est.)
    Median age:
    total: 25.7 years
    male: 24.5 years
    female: 26.7 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 157
    Population growth rate:
    1.48% (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Birth rate:
    20.9 births/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 72
    Death rate:
    9.2 deaths/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Net migration rate:
    2.9 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 38
    Population distribution:
    the population is primarily concentrated in the east with a focus in and around the capital of Gaborone, and the far central-eastern city of Francistown; population density remains low in other areas in the country, especially in the Kalahari to the west
    urban population: 70.9% of the total population (2020)
    rate of urbanization: 2.87% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
    Major urban areas – population:
    269,000 GABORONE (capital) (2018)
    Sex ratio:
    at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
    0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
    15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
    25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
    55-64 years: 0.76 male(s)/female
    65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
    total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2020 est.)
    Maternal mortality rate:
    144 deaths/100,000 live births (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Infant mortality rate:
    total: 26.8 deaths/1,000 live births
    male: 29.2 deaths/1,000 live births
    female: 24.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 66
    Life expectancy at birth:
    total population: 64.8 years
    male: 62.8 years
    female: 66.9 years (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 197
    Total fertility rate:
    2.45 children born/woman (2020 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 77
    Drinking water source:
    improved:urban: 99.2% of population
    rural: 92.3% of population
    total: 96.2% of population
    unimproved:urban: 0.8% of population
    rural: 7.7% of the population
    total: 3.8% of the population (2015 est.)
    Current Health Expenditure:
    5.5% (2016)
    Physicians density:
    0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2016)
    Hospital bed density:
    1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
    Sanitation facility access:
    improved:urban: 78.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 43.1% of the population (2015 est.)
    total: 63.4% of the population (2015 est.)
    unimproved:urban: 21.5% of population (2015 est.)
    rural: 56.9% of the population (2015 est.)
    total: 36.6% of the population (2015 est.)
    HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
    20.3% (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
    370,000 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 19
    HIV/AIDS – deaths:
    4,800 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 26
    Major infectious diseases:
    degree of risk: high (2020)
    food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhoea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
    vectorborne diseases: malaria
    Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
    18.9% (2016)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Education expenditures:
    9.6% of GDP (2009)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    definition: age 15 and over can read and write
    total population: 88.5%
    male: 88%
    female: 88.9% (2015)
    School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
    total: 13 years
    male: 13 years
    female: 13 years (2013)
    Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
    total: 36%
    male: 29.6%
    female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 18
  • Government:: BOTSWANA
  • Country name:
    conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
    conventional short form: Botswana
    local long form: Republic of Botswana
    local short form: Botswana
    former: Bechuanaland
    etymology: the name Botswana means “Land of the Tswana” – referring to the country’s major ethnic group
    Government type:
    parliamentary republic
    name: Gaborone
    geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
    time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
    etymology: named after GABORONE (ca. 1825-1931), a revered kgosi (chief) of the Tlokwa tribe, part of the larger Tswana ethnic group
    Administrative divisions:
    10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
    30 September 1966 (from the UK)
    National holiday:
    Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
    history: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966
    amendments: proposed by the National Assembly; passage requires approval in two successive Assembly votes with at least two-thirds majority in the final vote; proposals to amend constitutional provisions on fundamental rights and freedoms, the structure and branches of government, and public services also require approval by majority vote in a referendum and assent by the president of the republic; amended several times, last in 2006 (2017)
    International law organization participation:
    accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations; accepts ICCt jurisdiction
    citizenship by birth: no
    citizenship by descent only: at least one parent must be a citizen of Botswana
    dual citizenship recognized: no
    the residency requirement for naturalization: 10 years
    18 years of age; universal
    Executive branch:
    chief of state: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government
    head of government: President Mokgweetse Eric MASISI (since 1 April 2018); Vice President Slumber TSOGWANE (since 4 April 2018); note – the president is both chief of state and head of government
    cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
    elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held on 31 October 2019); vice president appointed by the president
    election results: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008) stepped down on 1 April 2018 having completed the constitutionally mandated 10-year term limit; upon his retirement, then Vice President MASISI became president; national elections held on 23 October 2019 gave MASISI’S BPD 38 seats in the National Assembly which then selected MASISI as President
    Legislative branch:
    description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 4 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by a simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members – the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note – the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members – 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana’s principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments
    elections: last held on 23 October 2019 (next to be held in October 2024)
    election results: percent of vote by party – BDP 52.7%, UDC 35.9%, BPF 4.4%, AP 5.1%, other 1.7%; seats by party – BDP 38, UDC 15, BPF 3, AP 1; composition – NA
    Judicial branch:
    highest courts: Court of Appeal, High Court (each consist of a chief justice and several other judges as prescribed by the Parliament)
    the judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70
    subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief’s Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief’s Representative Court; Chief’s Representative’s Court; Headman’s Court
    Political parties and leaders:
    Alliance of Progressives or AP [Ndaba GAOLATHE]
    Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO]
    Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Mokgweetsi MASISI]
    Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Sidney PILANE]
    Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO]
    Botswana Patriotic Front or BPF [Biggie BUTALE]
    Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI]
    Real Alternative Party or RAP [Gaontebale MOKGOSI]
    Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (various times the collation has included the BMD, BPP, BCP and BNF) (2019)
    International organization participation:
    Diplomatic representation in the US:
    Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
    chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
    telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
    FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
    consulate(s) general: Atlanta
    Diplomatic representation from the US:
    chief of mission: Ambassador Craig Lewis CLOUD (since 2 April 2019)
    telephone: [267] 395-3982
    embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
    mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
    FAX: [267] 318-0232
    Flag description:
    light blue with a horizontal white-edged black stripe in the centre; the blue symbolizes water in the form of rain, while the black and white bands represent racial harmony
    National symbol(s):
    zebra; national colours: blue, white, black
    National anthem:
    name: “Fatshe leno la Rona” (Our Land)
    lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE

    note: adopted 1966

  • Economy:: BOTSWANA
  • Economy – overview:

    Until the beginning of the global recession in 2008, Botswana maintained one of the world’s highest economic growth rates since its independence in 1966. Botswana recovered from the global recession in 2010, but only grew modestly until 2017, primarily due to a downturn in the global diamond market, though water and power shortages also played a role. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana has transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world five decades ago into a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of approximately $18,100 in 2017. Botswana also ranks as one of the least corrupt and best places to do business in Sub-Saharan Africa.


    Because of its heavy reliance on diamond exports, Botswana’s economy closely follows global price trends for that one commodity. Diamond mining fueled much of Botswana’s past economic expansion and currently accounts for one-quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government’s revenues. In 2017, Diamond exports increased to the highest levels since 2013 at about 22 million carats of output, driving Botswana’s economic growth to about 4.5% and increasing foreign exchange reserves to about 45% of GDP. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana’s nascent downstream diamond industry.


    Tourism is a secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in tourism-related services, subsistence farming, and cattle rearing. According to official government statistics, unemployment is around 20%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country’s impressive economic gains.

    GDP (purchasing power parity):
    $39.01 billion (2017 est.)
    $38.11 billion (2016 est.)
    $36.54 billion (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 121
    GDP (official exchange rate):
    $17.38 billion (2017 est.)
    GDP – real growth rate:
    2.4% (2017 est.)
    4.3% (2016 est.)
    -1.7% (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 137
    GDP – per capita (PPP):
    $17,000 (2017 est.)
    $16,900 (2016 est.)
    $16,500 (2015 est.)

    note: data are in 2017 dollars

    country comparison to the world: 102
    Gross national saving:
    40.3% of GDP (2017 est.)
    38.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
    41.2% of GDP (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 9
    GDP – composition, by end-use:
    household consumption: 48.5% (2017 est.)
    government consumption: 18.4% (2017 est.)
    investment in fixed capital: 29% (2017 est.)
    investment in inventories: -1.8% (2017 est.)
    exports of goods and services: 39.8% (2017 est.)
    imports of goods and services: -33.9% (2017 est.)
    GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
    agriculture: 1.8% (2017 est.)
    industry: 27.5% (2017 est.)
    services: 70.6% (2017 est.)
    Agriculture – products:
    livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
    diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; beef processing; textiles
    Industrial production growth rate:
    -4.2% (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 193
    Labour force:
    1.177 million (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 141
    Labour force – by occupation:
    agriculture: NA
    industry: NA
    services: NA
    Unemployment rate:
    20% (2013 est.)
    17.8% (2009 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 185
    Population below poverty line:
    19.3% (2009 est.)
    Household income or consumption by percentage share:
    lowest 10%: NA
    highest 10%: NA
    revenues: 5.305 billion (2017 est.)
    expenditures: 5.478 billion (2017 est.)
    Taxes and other revenues:
    30.5% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 75
    Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
    -1% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 76
    Public debt:
    14% of GDP (2017 est.)
    15.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 195
    Fiscal year:
    1 April – 31 March
    Inflation rate (consumer prices):
    3.3% (2017 est.)
    2.8% (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Current account balance:
    $2.146 billion (2017 est.)
    $2.147 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 40
    $5.934 billion (2017 est.)
    $7.226 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 102
    Exports – partners:
    Belgium 20.3%, India 12.6%, UAE 12.4%, South Africa 11.9%, Singapore 8.7%, Israel 7%, Hong Kong 4.1%, Namibia 4.1% (2017)
    Exports – commodities:
    diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, beef, textiles
    $5.005 billion (2017 est.)
    $5.871 billion (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 128
    Imports – commodities:
    foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
    Imports – partners:
    South Africa 66.1%, Canada 8.3%, Israel 5.3% (2017)
    Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
    $7.491 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $7.189 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 82
    Debt – external:
    $2.187 billion (31 December 2017 est.)
    $2.421 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 151
    Exchange rates:
    pulas (BWP) per US dollar –
    10.19 (2017 est.)
    10.9022 (2016 est.)
    10.9022 (2015 est.)
    10.1263 (2014 est.)
    8.9761 (2013 est.)
  • Energy :: BOTSWANA
  • Electricity access:
    electrification – total population: 60.7% (2016)
    electrification – urban areas: 77.7% (2016)
    electrification – rural areas: 37.5% (2016)
    Electricity – production:
    2.527 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Electricity – consumption:
    3.636 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 131
    Electricity – exports:
    0 kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 109
    Electricity – imports:
    1.673 billion kWh (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 59
    Electricity – installed generating capacity:
    735,000 kW (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Electricity – from fossil fuels:
    100% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 4
    Electricity – from nuclear fuels:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 54
    Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 159
    Electricity – from other renewable sources:
    0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 178
    Crude oil – production:
    0 bbl/day (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Crude oil – exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 97
    Crude oil – imports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 100
    Crude oil – proved reserves:
    0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 110
    Refined petroleum products – production:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 122
    Refined petroleum products – consumption:
    21,000 bbl/day (2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 135
    Refined petroleum products – exports:
    0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 133
    Refined petroleum products – imports:
    21,090 bbl/day (2015 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 116
    Natural gas – production:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 108
    Natural gas – consumption:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 124
    Natural gas – exports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 73
    Natural gas – imports:
    0 cu m (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    Natural gas – proved reserves:
    0 cu m (1 January 2014 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 114
    Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
    6.235 million Mt (2017 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 127
  • Communications:: BOTSWANA
  • Telephones – fixed lines:
    total subscriptions: 142,481
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 6 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 129
    Telephones – mobile cellular:
    total subscriptions: 3,381,228
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 150 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
    Telephone system:
    general assessment: the Botswana Telecommunications Corp is rolling out 4G service to over 95 sites in the country that will improve network connectivity; an effective regulatory reform has turned Botswana’s telecom market into one of the most liberalized in the region; Botswana has one of the highest mobile penetration rates in Africa; 3 MNOs have entered the underdeveloped broadband sector with the adoption of 3G, LTE and WiMAX technologies; mobile Internet remains the preferred choice; the expansion of a fully digital system with fibre-optic cables linking the major population centres in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, still the use of multiple SIM cards has delayed the introduction of mobile number portability (MNP)  (2020)
    domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 6 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity has advanced to 150 telephones per 100 persons (2018)
    international: country code – 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialling; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station – 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean)
    note: the COVID-19 outbreak is negatively impacting telecommunications production and supply chains globally; consumer spending on telecom devices and services has also slowed due to the pandemic’s effect on economies worldwide; overall progress towards improvements in all facets of the telecom industry – mobile, fixed-line, broadband, submarine cable and satellite – has moderated
    Broadcast media:
    2 TV stations – 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately-owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 4 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2019)
    Internet country code:
    Internet users:
    total: 869,610
    per cent of the population: 39.4% (July 2016 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 136
    Broadband – fixed subscriptions:
    total: 40,044
    subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 2 (2018 est.)
    country comparison to the world: 138
  • Military and Security:: BOTSWANA
  • Military expenditures:
    2.78% of GDP (2018)
    3.02% of GDP (2017)
    3.37% of GDP (2016)
    2.66% of GDP (2015)
    2.13% of GDP (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 29
    Military and security forces:
    Botswana Defence Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Arm Command, Defense Logistics Command (2019)
    Military service age and obligation:
    18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
  • Transportation:: BOTSWANA
  • National air transport system:
    number of registered air carriers: 1 (2015)
    inventory of registered aircraft operated by air carriers: 6 (2015)
    annual passenger traffic on registered air carriers: 194,005 (2015)
    annual freight traffic on registered air carriers: 94,729 mt-km (2015)
    Civil aircraft registration country code prefix:
    A2 (2016)
    74 (2013)
    country comparison to the world: 70
    Airports – with paved runways:
    total: 10 (2017)
    over 3,047 m: 2 (2017)
    2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2017)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 6 (2017)
    914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2017)
    Airports – with unpaved runways:
    total: 64 (2013)
    1,524 to 2,437 m: 5 (2013)
    914 to 1,523 m: 46 (2013)
    under 914 m: 13 (2013)
    total: 888 km (2014)
    narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
    country comparison to the world: 95
    total: 31,747 km (2017)
    paved: 9,810 km (2017)
    unpaved: 21,937 km (2017)
    country comparison to the world: 94
  • Transnational Issues:: BOTSWANA
  • Disputes – international:


    Trafficking in persons:
    current situation: Botswana is a source, transit, and destination country for women and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labour; young Batswana serving as domestic workers, sometimes sent by their parents, maybe denied education and necessities or experience confinement and abuse indicative of forced labour; Batswana girls and women also are forced into prostitution domestically; adults and children of San ethnicity were reported to be in forced labour on farms and at cattle posts in the country’s rural west
    tier rating: Tier 2 Watch List – Botswana does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking; however, it is making significant efforts to do so; an anti-trafficking act was passed at the beginning of 2014, but authorities did not investigate, prosecute, or convict any offenders or government officials complicit in trafficking or operationalize victim identification and referral procedures based on the new law; the government-sponsored a radio campaign to familiarize the public with the issue of human trafficking (2015)
READ  Graphic Designer Intern